chttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898641/

Potential risk factors for neural tube defects

Maternal nutrition

  • Alcohol use198
  • Caffeine use199
  • Low folate intake200
  • Low dietary quality201
  • Elevated glycaemic load or index202
  • Low methionine intake203
  • Low serum choline level204
  • Low serum vitamin B12 level205
  • Low vitamin C level206
  • Low zinc intake207

Other maternal factors

  • Smoking198
  • Hyperthermia208
  • Low socio-economic status209
  • Maternal infections and illnesses210
  • Pregestational insulin-dependent diabetes211
  • Pregestational obesity17
  • Psychosocial stress212,213
  • Valproic acid use214

Environmental factors

  • Ambient air pollution215,216
  • Disinfectant by-products in drinking water217
  • Indoor air pollution218
  • Nitrate-related compounds219
  • Organic solvents220
  • Pesticides221,222
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon