Repairing varicocele is often done to improve male infertility or unexplained infertility because the dilated veins are thought to result in poor sperm quality and quantity. But when data from seven previously published trials were reanalysed, varicocele treatment seemed to have little effect on fertility. Surgery increased the pregnancy rate by only 1% (Lancet 2003;361: 1849-52 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]).